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Home > Cultural > History > Chronology > 1851 to 1900

Oregon History: Chronology - 1851 to 1900



1851 First General Land Office opens in Oregon City
Willamette Valley Treaty Commission negotiates treaties
Teamsters discover gold in Rogue River Valley
Anson Dart convenes Tansy Point Treaty Council at mouth of Columbia
First U.S. Army post, Fort Orford, built at Port Orford
U.S. Coast Survey begins charting shoreline
1852 U.S. Army establishes Fort Dalles on Oregon Trail
Congress names Salem capital of Oregon Territory
1853 Territorial legislature adopts Oregon law code
U.S. Army establishes Fort Lane in Rogue River Valley
Territorial legislature publishes Oregon Archives
Congress funds Scottsburg-Myrtle Creek Wagon Road
Cow Creek and Rogue River Indians negotiate treaties with U. S.
Congress carves Washington Territory out of Oregon Territory
First coal exports begin on southwest Oregon coast
1854 Volunteers massacre Coquille Indians
Legislature prohibits sale of ardent spirits, arms and ammunition to tribes
Legislature bars testimony of "Negroes, mulattoes, and Indians, or persons one half or more of Indian blood" in proceedings involving a white person
1855 Pacific Railroad Surveys examine potential routes
Umatilla and Nez Perce tribes sign treaties at Walla Walla Treaty Council, reserving land and rights to food resources
Warms Springs tribes sign treaty reserving land and rights to food resources
Rogue River Indian War and Yakima Indian War commence
President James Buchanan creates Siletz Reservation
Territorial capitol burns in Salem
1856 U.S. Army establishes Forts Umpqua, Hoskins and Yamhill
President James Buchanan creates Grand Ronde Reservation
U.S. Army orders closure of settlement east of Cascades because of warfare with Indians
1857 Constitutional Convention meets in Salem
Draft constitution bans slavery and bars African-Americans from residency
Aaron Meier founds Meier & Frank Department Store
1858 First election selects state officials
1859 Congress grants Oregon statehood on February 14, becoming only state admitted to Union with exclusion laws in their constitution
First bank established by Ladd & Tilton in Portland
First elected governor of state, John Whiteaker, inaugurated
1860 Census enumerates 52,465 residents
Oregon Steam Navigation Company commences service
First daily stage operates between Portland and Sacramento
1861 First Oregon State Fair held at Oregon City
1862 Congress passes Homestead Act
First Oregon Cavalry raises six companies
Gold rush commences to Blue Mountains
First portage railroad completed at Cascades
  Laws passed banning interracial marriages; requiring Blacks, Chinese, Hawaiians (Kanakas) and Mulattos to pay annual $5 tax, those not able to pay required to perform road maintenance
1863 U.S. Army establishes Fort Klamath
1864 Telegraph line connects Portland-Sacramento
U.S. Army establishes Camp Watson
Treaty creates Klamath Reservation
Popular vote approves Salem as state capital
1865 Long Tom Rebellion confirms pro-southern sympathies
Congress authorizes Oregon Central Military Wagon Road
1866 First lighthouse, Cape Arago, illuminates light signal
U.S. Army establishes Camp Warner
Married Women's Property Act protects women's rights
Congress authorizes Corvallis-Yaquina Bay Military Wagon Road and Willamette Valley-Cascade Mountain Military Wagon Road
1867 U.S. Army establishes Fort Harney
Congress authorizes The Dalles-Boise Military Wagon Road
1868 Oregon State Agricultural College opens (later becomes Oregon State University)
1869 Direct export of wheat to Europe begins
Congress authorizes Coos Bay Military Wagon Road
1870 U.S. Census enumerates 90,923 residents
Abigail Scott Duniway launches suffrage campaign
  Despite failing in Oregon election, U.S. Constitution adds 15th Amendment granting African-American men the right to vote
1872 Oregon & California Railroad completes line to Roseburg
Modoc Indian War commences
1873 Oregon Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) forms chapters
Modoc Indians face trial and execution at Fort Klamath
Oregon Pioneer Association forms
  Great fire destroys much of downtown Portland
1875 First U.S. Life-Saving Service station opens near Coos Bay
1876 University of Oregon opens
Robert D. Hume builds salmon cannery on Rogue River
1877 Nez Perce Indian War involves Chief Joseph's band
Congress passes Desert Land Act
1878 High schools authorized for districts with 1,000 students
Bannock-Paiute Indian War sweeps into southeastern Oregon
Women gain right to vote in school elections
1879 BIA Indian Training School opens in Forest Grove, third boarding school of its type, designed to assimilate tribal children into white culture, teach vocational skills
1880 Great Gale snow and wind storm devastates parts of Oregon and Washington
  U.S. Census enumerates 174,768 residents
O. R. & N. Company begins railroad through Gorge
1882 Normal schools open in Monmouth, Ashland and Drain to train teachers
1883 O. R. & N. Company railroad reaches Umatilla providing transcontinental links
1884 Oregon Short Line railroad extends to Huntington
1885 BIA Indian Training School opens near Salem, is renamed Chemawa Indian School
1886 Oregon Supreme Court admits Mary Gysin Leonard to the state bar as Oregon’s first female lawyer
Chief Joseph's Nez Perce band locates on Colville Reservation
1887 Thugs murder ten Chinese miners in Hells Canyon
General Allotment Act assaults tribal lands on reservations
Cranberry harvests commence
  First in U.S. to make Labor Day a holiday
1888 First Agricultural Experiment Station opens at Corvallis
1890 Congress passes Oregon Indian Depredation Claims Act
U.S. Census enumerates 313,767 residents
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association founded
1891 Congress passes Forest Reserve Act
1892 Congress authorizes Columbia River Lightship No. 50
1894 Mazama Club forms to promote outdoor adventure
1896 Workmen complete Cascade Locks
1897 Holdup of '97 blocks state legislature
1898 Oregon Historical Society receives charter
1900 Workmen complete Yamhill River Locks
  U.S. Census enumerates 413,536 residents